Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. It has a population of about and a metropolitan population of about, making it the third most populous city and fifth most populous urban agglomeration in India. Located in southern India on the Deccan Plateau, at a height of over above sea level, Bengaluru is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year. Its elevation is the highest among the major large cities of India. A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas and the Hoysalas, ruled the present region of Bengaluru until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā – a feudatory ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire – established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bengaluru. In 1638, the Marāthās conquered and ruled Bengaluru for almost 50 years, after which the Mughals captured and sold the city to the Mysore Kingdom of the Wadiyar dynasty. It was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore, and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bengaluru, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India’s independence in 1947, Bengaluru became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bengaluru – city and cantonment – which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The existing Kannada name, Bengalūru, was declared the official name of the city in 2006. Bengaluru is known as the “Silicon Valley of India” because of its role as the nation’s leading information technology (IT) exporter. Indian technological organizations ISRO, Infosys and Wipro are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bengaluru is the second-fastest growing major metropolis in India. It is home to many educational and research institutions in India, such as Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), National Institute of Design, Bangalore (NID R&D Campus), National Law School of India University (NLSIU) and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous state-owned aerospace and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics, Hindustan Aeronautics and National Aerospace Laboratories are located. The city also houses the Kannada film industry. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Bengaluru confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems. With a gross domestic product (GDP) of $83 billion, Bengaluru is the fourth highest city in India by overall GDP contribution.