In law, an appeal is a process for requesting a formal change to an official decision. They normally consist of an appellant, who requests the appeal, and an appellee who is subject to it (these terms are roughly equivalent to the legal terms plaintiff and defendant respectively). Very broadly speaking there are appeals on the record and de novo appeals. In de novo appeals, a new decision maker re-hears the case without any reference to the prior decision maker. In appeals on the record, the decision of the prior decision maker is challenged by arguing that he or she misapplied the law, came to an incorrect factual finding, acted in excess of his jurisdiction, abused his powers, was biased, considered evidence which he should not have considered, or failed to consider evidence that he should have considered.